I may go to hell in a bucket, but at least I'm enjoying the ride. You only need them when you have a quick-action valve (such as a dishwasher or washing machine). You can use Lowes or Depot liquid fillers. Simple air chambers made of an additional piece of pipe with a lid will eventually fill up and be useless.
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Ionization chamber, radiation detector used to determine the intensity of a radiation beam or to count individual charged particles. Ion chambers have a good uniform response to radiation over a wide range of energies and are the preferred means for measuring high levels of gamma radiation.
Ionizing radiation includes the more energetic end of the electromagnetic spectrum (x-rays and gamma rays) and subatomic particles, such as electrons, neutrons and alpha particles (each of the helium nuclei comprises two protons and two neutrons). The energy emitted by a source is generally referred to as radiation.