An ionisation chamber, also known as an ion chamber, is an electrical device that detects various types of ionizing radiation. It works by adjusting the detector voltage to correspond to the ionization region, where the voltage is insufficient to cause gas amplification (secondary ionization). This means that the detectors in the ionization region operate at a low electric field strength, so gas multiplication does not occur. The collected load (output signal) is independent of the applied voltage. Individual minimum ionization particles tend to be quite small and generally require special low-noise amplifiers for efficient operating performance.
Ionization chambers are preferred for high radiation dose rates because they have no “downtime”, a phenomenon that affects the accuracy of the Geiger-Mueller tube at high dose rates. This is because there is no inherent signal amplification in the operating medium; therefore, these meters do not require much time to recover from large currents. In addition, because there is no amplification, they provide excellent energy resolution, which is mainly limited by electronic noise. Ionisation chambers are used in a variety of applications, such as medical imaging, nuclear power plant monitoring, and radiation safety. In medical imaging, they are used to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted from radioactive sources.
In nuclear power plants, they are used to monitor radiation levels in order to ensure safety. They are also used in radiation safety to measure radiation levels in order to protect workers from overexposure. Ionisation chambers are also used in research and development. They can be used to measure the energy of particles or photons emitted from radioactive sources. They can also be used to measure the energy of particles or photons emitted from other sources such as lasers or accelerators. Ionisation chambers are highly sensitive devices that can detect even small amounts of radiation.
They are reliable and accurate instruments that can be used for a variety of applications. They are also relatively inexpensive and easy to use.