A typical home bladder is 12 inches long and is made of a half-inch pipe plugged at the top and installed vertically in the supply line just before it reaches the shutoff valves. A plumbing bladder is not a sophisticated device. The cushion is often a device manufactured by a plumber. It is made of a simple pipe attached to the water supply lines between the shut-off valve and a faucet, spigot, or any plumbing outlet.
Ready-to-use plumbing air chambers are also available. It is nothing more than a piece of pipe plugged at one end, attached to a supply line at the other and containing air. Most air chambers are installed vertically on horizontal supply lines. If the supply line is already in the vertical position, an additional length of short horizontal pipe can be added.
Since this dead-end pipe is installed so that it partially intersects the water flow, the pipe also contains an air pocket. Air chambers are small lengths of pipe that are mounted in water pipes, close to a fitting. They are made to stop hydraulic shock, also known as water hammer. The air in the chamber compresses and absorbs the impact of water that moves sharply in the pipes.
All of this happens when a device shuts off the water quickly. Locate the main water shutoff valve in the house. The main valve is usually outside the house. Turn off the valve with an adjustable wrench.
To recharge the inner tubes in a plumbing system, start by turning off the water in the water meter. Then first open the tallest faucets (the ones that are farthest from the meter) and then go down to the basement or utility room. When you turn on the laundry faucet, usually the lowest in the house, the whole house drains into the tub. Don't forget to open the keys to the outer sill and pull the toilet chain on your way.